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Glossary of terms
The stress analysis is a family of experimental techniques that allows, with appropriate instruments, to trace the stress state present in an artefact.
In particular, among the various techniques available, TEC Eurolab Srl offers instruments and expertise in strain gage tests and measurements of residual stresses.
The strain gage test is a technique that allows the surface deformation state of an artefact thanks to the application on its surface of special resistive sensors called strain gauges.
With strain gauges it is possible to detect deformations and, therefore, the tensions of an artefact during operation, thus obtaining important data in order to perform a structural analysis of the artifact both to validate and refine computer simulations.
The residual stresses are "hidden" loads present inside of an artefact because of its "thermo mechanical history”. There are in fact processes (such as heat treatment or welding) that induce a residual stress state inside the component which, in operation, is added to the operation stresses. This can create unexpected criticalities if not properly evaluated.
Among the various methods of measurement of residual stress, two of the most important are the measurement by drilling washer and the x-ray diffraction analysis. In the first case it is a technique of strain gage type in which the stresses of the artefact are released and they are measured by using appropriate gauges. In the second case, the X-ray diffraction, the bond lengths variation of the metal elementary cells is measured, lengths that may be influenced by any residual stress states present.
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